Tag: blackbox

WhatWeb – Website Technology Identifier
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WhatWeb – Website Technology Identifier

Overview WhatWeb is an open-source reconnaissance tool capable of identifying the technology of a website. It recognises web technologies including content management systems (CMS), JavaScript libraries, web servers, statistic/analytics packages, blogging platforms and more. It has over a thousand plugins to recognise software versions, frameworks, email addresses, errors and etc. WhatWeb not only identifies the technology found but also describes it, which is great as not everyone understands the technology identified. Here is the list of features WhatWeb contains: Over 1700 plugins Control the trade-off between speed/stealth and reliability Plugins include example URLs Performance tuning. Control how many websites to scan concurrently. Multiple log formats: Br...
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DNSenum – DNS Information Gathering

Overview Dnsenum is an open-source DNS information gathering tool to find DNS information of a domain and discover non-contiguous IP blocks. Its main purpose is to gather as much information as possible about a domain. DNSenum is scripted in Perl that also supports multithreading to speed up the scans. Its features are: Get the host’s addresses (A record). Get the name servers (threaded). Get the MX record (threaded). Perform axfr queries on nameservers and get BIND versions(threaded). Get extra names and subdomains via google scraping (google query = “allinurl: -www site:domain”). Brute force subdomains from a file. can also perform recursion on subdomains that have NS records (all threaded). Calculate C class domain network ranges and perform whois querie...
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Whois – Server Reconnaissance

Overview WHOIS (RFC 3912) protocol is a query and response protocol. The Whois tool is used to establish this protocol and intelligently choose the appropriate whois server and query its database. The information gathered from this database is information such as contact details for domains, IP Addresses and Admin assignments. How to use Whois The command format to use whois is whois <Domain/URL> This simple command gives a lot of information about the domain such as: Creation Date Updated Date Registry Registrant (details) Name Server DNSSEC Admin (details) etc These are useful information that can help you get a better picture of your target. We can also see that whois gathers this information instantly. Conclusion Whoi...
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Optimizing ZAP Scan

Overview Is your ZAP scan taking hours to complete? Maybe even a day to two? Not everyone has the luxury to wait for a 24hr ZAP scan to complete. This is the problem many people face and is what we will be tackling. In this article, we will discuss the variables that affect the duration of the scan and optimise zap scans. Optimise Zap Scans - What Affects a ZAP Scan? Server Hardware and network are one factor that affects the speed of a ZAP scan. So you could get better equipment, but the target equipment is also another factor that we can't control. Thus, let's focus on the configuration of the ZAP application itself. When running an automated scan, there are 2 things that occur, the spidering (which is also part of the passive scan) and the active scan. Each of these co...
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How to Automate OWASP ZAP – Automation Framework

In a penetration test, there are vulnerabilities, exploits and misconfiguration to find, which requires a lot of time to test for. But, we can solve this easily and efficiently with the help of automation. With the ZAP application, there are many ways to automate ZAP, such as using the command line, APIs or a docker package. In this article, we will be focusing on the Automation Framework provided by ZAP, as it is a feature that is already part of the ZAP application and is also the easiest way to automate ZAP. How to use the ZAP Automation Frameworks? ZAP Automation Framework from the GUI The Automation framework should already be part of the ZAP application. However, if this is not the case, you can install it from the ZAP Marketplace. To use the automation framew...
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ZAP Command Line

ZAP is mostly executed from the GUI, but ZAP can also be executed from the command line. This is great if you want to run a quick scan on your target or want to automate it. If you haven't read How to use OWASP ZAP - Open Source Vulnerability Scanner, I suggest you read it first to have a better understanding of ZAP before moving on to the command line. ZAP Command Line (CLI) Executing ZAP from the command line is limited as you will not be able to specify anything using the command line arguments alone. This means you may not be able to use other scanning features such as fuzzing, ajax spidering, brute force, etc. You can specify some variables by using the -autorun command with an automation file from the automation framework. You can read more about that in How to Autom...
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How to use OWASP ZAP – Open Source Vulnerability Scanner

Overview OWASP ZAP is an open-source web application vulnerability scanner that runs on Java11+. It has features such as spidering, passive scanning, active scanning, fuzzing, automation, API and more. ZAP is available on operating systems such as Windows, Linux, Mac and cross platforms. You can download ZAP from here. If you are using Kali Linux, it comes preinstalled. In this article, we will discuss how to use ZAP, its features and results to take note of. How to use ZAP ZAP can be executed through the Automated Scan or the Manual Explore option. Automated Scan This method is an automatic scan. It is the main feature of ZAP. First, enter the URL to attack, and select a spider to use (traditional or ajax). Next, click attack and let it run to comp...
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Ffuf – URL Directory Finder/Fuzzer

Overview Ffuf (Fuzz Faster U Fool) is a URL Fuzzer (a.k.a. URL Directory Finder/Browser). This tool can discover hidden, sensitive or vulnerable files and routes in web applications and servers. Essentially, you give the tool a wordlist and it will brute force directories, showing if it is a valid directory or not. And conveniently, it comes preinstalled on Kali Linux installations. Some tools you may be similar to Ffuf are : Wfuzz (very similar to Ffuf) Dirb (single thread only) Dirbuster (has a GUI but often crashes) Gobuster Generally, they all do the same thing, with slight differences like: The reliability of the tool (the tool crashing) The efficiency of the tool (single thread vs multi-thread) The options provided (filtering capabilities) Th...
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Sublist3r – Subdomain Finder for Penetration Testing

Overview One aspect of the information-gathering stage of penetration testing is to expand the attack surface of the target. Thus, we use Sublist3r, a subdomain finder. It is a simple and easy-to-use python programme that can be used to find subdomains of a target. How to use Sublist3r The example shown is executed on a Kali Linux machine. You can install it by following the documentation on their GitHub page. After installing sublit3r, make sure to navigate to the location of the sublilt3r python file. To run sublist3r, use the command format: python3 sublit3r.py -d <domain> Here you can see Sublit3r using multiple search engines like Baidu, Yahoo and Google to search for the target's subdomains. At the bottom, we can see that 3 subdomains were found on tasty...